Following US President Donald Trump`s decision to withdraw from the Paris Agreement on June 21, 2017, the daily HaberT-rk reported that Turkey had set a share of the Green Climate Fund as a precondition for ratification of the agreement and its approval to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (TBMM). After ratification, the agreement requires governments to submit their emission reduction plans. Ultimately, they must play their part in keeping global temperatures well below 2 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial period and making "efforts" to keep them at 1.5 degrees Celsius. The reason Turkey has not yet ratified the agreement is that it is classified as a developed country, with the obligation to provide financial resources to help developing countries achieve the objectives of the climate convention. Iran, Iraq and Libya - all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (Opec) - and conflict-torn states such as Yemen and South Sudan have not ratified the agreement. In addition, Turkey must recognize the evolution of climate policy patterns. Following the total failure of a comprehensive agreement at the 2009 Copenhagen Summit (COP 15), the parties began to seek new platforms for formulating effective climate policy and highlighted the difficulty of taking decisive action in the UNFCCC process because of the multiplicity of interests involved. The concepts of "mini-liberalism" or "climate clubs" have been promoted as alternatives to the UNFCCC in order to find viable solutions to global climate change. Footnote 11 This bottom-up approach to policy development has paved the way for the use of other platforms in parallel with formal UNFCCC negotiations. In particular, the Group of Twenty (G20) was the most important candidate to lead the climate talks, as it is composed mainly of major emitters of greenhouse gases. To reach an agreement at the 2015 Paris Summit (COP 21), and on the basis of the approved bottom-up approach, the parties used several forums to develop the Paris Agreement. Thus, the general perspective of the agreement was discussed and taken into account during these informal negotiations.

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